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– It is the upper part of the tooth and is the only place that can be clearly seen with the eye. The shape of the crown determines the function of the tooth. For example, the front teeth have a sharp shape for extracting food and molars have flat surfaces for grinding food.

Gingival Line
– It is where the tooth and gum meet. If proper brushing and tooth cleaning are not done, plaque and tartar can form in the gum line, causing gingivitis and gum disease.

– It is the part of the tooth that is embedded in the bone. The root makes up about two-thirds of the tooth and holds the tooth in place.

– It is the outermost layer of the tooth. Enamel is also the hardest and most mineralized tissue in the body. If proper mouth cleaning is not provided, the condition can result in bruising.

– It is the tooth layer under the enamel. If it can move through the rotten enamel, the next place it will reach is dentin. In this section there are millions of canals leading to the pulp.

– Soft tissue in the center of the tooth where nerve tissues and blood vessels are located. Pain is usually felt when the bruise reaches the pulp.

How many types of teeth are there?

Each tooth has a specific function:

– Sharp front teeth used for cutting food (Four on top and four on bottom).

– These teeth, also called canines, have sharp tips and are useful for plucking.

Small molars
– There are two bumps (pointed ends) on the chewing surfaces of these teeth. It serves to crumble and tear small molars.

Molar Teeth
They are used to grind food. There are multiple bumps on the chewing surface.

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In elderly patients who do not use prostheses, depression on the face and lips, shrinkage in the mouth and wrinkles starting from the corners of the lips occur.
Erythric Dentistry

In elderly individuals;

* Dulling in the color of the teeth, crowding of the lower incisors
* With the formation of diastema, the disappearance of papillary
* Dark triangles between the proximals of the teeth
* Abrasion on cutting edges
* Crack, discoloration
* Gingival recessions
* Severe bone loss in alveolar bone, especially in edentulous areas
* Decrease in salivary secretion, therefore decrease in prosthesis tolerance

In elderly patients who do not use prosthesis, depression on the face and lips, shrinkage in the mouth and wrinkles starting from the corners of the lips occur. Various problems related to the prosthesis can be seen in patients using prosthesis.

a) Prosthetic Stomatitis:

It is an inflammatory change in the oral mucosa caused by the use of prosthesis. Three types of denture stomatitis can be defined.

Type I; Localized inflammation and small hyperemic areas in the form of pins; It develops as a result of mechanical trauma due to prostheses. It heals by correcting the prostheses and providing appropriate occlusal relations.

Type II; Inflammation characterized by diffuse erythema (diffuse stomatitis).

Type III; Non-neoplastic papillary hyperplasia (granular prosthetic stomatitis, inflammatory papillary hyperplasia) with varying degrees of inflammation.

Prosthetic Teeth

b) Angular Cheilitis:

The decrease in the vertical neck of the face, the moist lip corners and the fissures formed in the corners of the lips as a result of cheek sucking.

Implant application in elderly people; If the anatomical and systemic characteristics of the patient are suitable, the connection between the implant and the bone can be successful in posterior tooth deficiencies, in individuals with age is not an obstacle for implant treatment and with good oral hygiene.

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Why Should Expired Restorations (Fillers And Crowns) Be Renewed?

There are some reasons for this;

REPEATING CARIES; Conditions that cause initial caries can also predispose to further decay around the filling. If the tooth is not kept clean, it may decay again from the edges of the filling. If there is a crown on the tooth and oral care is not paid attention, decay can easily start between the crown and the tooth. As mentioned earlier, if the caries is not treated, the decay can invade the nerve chamber of the tooth and cause a p s. These events will result in root canal treatment or loss of the tooth.

WEAR; Although there are many factors that affect the life of a restoration, the average life of a silver (amalgam) fill, crown or bridge is 5 to 15 years. The average life of composites (plastic-tooth colored filling) is 5 to 10 years. Constant forces applied to teeth and fillings by chewing are the cause of wear. In some cases, porcelain or gold crowns wear out due to the constant grinding of the opposite tooth.

CRACKS; During the day, our teeth are subjected to more physical forces than we can imagine. Even while eating, the square centimeter of our teeth is subjected to pressures worth hundreds of kilograms-force. Biting pressure and chewing on hard foods can cause fine cracks in teeth or restorations.

ABRASIONS; If timely measures are not taken for cracks, the teeth will break or wear out. More expensive and elaborate processes become required. Crowns are recommended for this type of teeth. Sometimes these cracks and abrasions are also found in the porcelain crown. A worn porcelain has expired and begins to crumble. Determining the wear on the existing porcelain crowns during routine controls and taking the necessary precautions will prolong the life of the restoration.

AESTHETIC; Over time, the fillings change color or become stained. Although the change in the appearance of the fillings does not pose a health risk at times, it will cause an unpleasant appearance in the mouth. Nowadays, it is possible to get rid of these unpleasant images by using special filling materials in the same color as the teeth instead of metal-colored fillings.

DENTAL DISEASES; Many patients are unaware that they will lose their teeth due to gum disease. Even teeth without decay can be lost due to gum disease. This process goes very slowly. Bone loss follows gingival recession, and when the supporting tissues of the tooth dissolve, the loss of the tooth is inevitable. When your dentist detects this disease, he will talk about the measures to stop the disease from progressing.

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The Effect of Teeth on Speaking Properly

The Effect of Teeth on Speaking Properly

Speech is one of the most important elements of human relationships. Some professions are completely based on proper speech. These professions; Some professions, such as politics, acting, speaking, singing, and lawyers, rely heavily on proper speech.
In proper speech, teeth also play an important role in addition to many elements and education.

The examples below highlight this role.
DE and TE sounds emerge when the tip of the tongue is supported by the inclination of the upper incisors on the palate side.
FE and VE sounds are produced when the lower lip touches the cutting edges of the upper incisors.
SE sound comes out with a complicated process. It occurs when the upper and lower incisors are in contact with each other, while the tongue receives support from the tongue side of the molars and the tip of the tongue (making a groove between the incisors) creates an air tube. CE and JE sounds are performed in a similar process; but meanwhile, the tip of the tongue does not join the task.
Teeth, jaw bones, gums, tongue, palate, all of these, chewing, taste. They carry out their duties related to swallowing and speaking as a whole.

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Orthodontics; It is a branch of dentistry that examines the deteriorating relationship between the face, jaws and teeth and deals with the treatment of anomalies. It is a known fact that crowded teeth cause problems in providing oral hygiene as well as aesthetic disadvantages.
Since the teeth are not lined up regularly, the retention of the bacterial plaque will be high, the acids produced by the microorganisms that reproduce here can cause decay in the tooth enamel and periodontal problems in the gums.

If we examine orthodontic treatments in 3 periods according to whether the milk teeth are in the mouth or not.

In the milk-toothed period; pre-school period. Problems related to factors that we call bad habits such as finger sucking, lip biting, long-term use of bottles and pacifiers in this period can be treated before a permanent skeletal anomaly occurs in the milk toothed period. For this purpose, appliances that receive force from inside or outside of the mouth can be used.

In mixed dentition period; This period is primary school ages. Apart from the milk teeth, it has started to appear in permanent teeth in the mouth. Milk teeth have a guiding role for the teeth that will come from below. Due to the untimely lost milk teeth, the sliding of other teeth towards this gap causes the area of ​​the teeth coming from below to narrow.

This may cause the permanent tooth to come out in a different position. If the deciduous teeth fall out late, it may cause the tooth coming from below to come out in a different position or to be buried in the jaw. Elimination of the chaos caused by these is the subject of orthodontics.

In the permanent dentition period; Incompatibilities between the jaws that start in the mixed dentition period and continue until the end of adolescence (such as the lower jaw being ahead of the upper jaw or far behind the upper jaw) are the subject of orthodontic treatment.

Apart from these, slippage of teeth due to gum diseases (due to periodontitis) and irregularities of teeth sliding towards the cavity of the extracted teeth are also the subjects of orthodontic treatment.

1-Mouth decays and gums should be treated before starting treatment.
2-Maximum care should be taken to maintain oral hygiene after the appliances are installed. It is necessary not to allow the formation of bacterial plaques around the appliances.
3-During the controls, the recommendations of the physician should be followed.
4-Appointments should not be delayed.
5-If there is a break in the movable apparatus or dislocation of the fixed brackets, the physician should be informed.
6-Reinforcement treatment should be worn for the time and at the times recommended by your doctor.


All devices used in orthodontic treatment, also known as braces, are given this name. They are mostly used to transmit force on teeth, but some are passive appliances such as habit breakers and reinforcement appliances. They are classified as movable appliances and fixed appliances.
Movable appliances: These are appliances that can be inserted and removed from the mouth and transmit force to the teeth thanks to parts such as springs and screws.

Fixed appliances: Tiny metal parts called brackets are attached to the tooth, and they are not removed until the treatment is completed.

In the selection of the apparatus, the method that will achieve the best result as soon as possible is decided by the orthodontist. The economic situation of the family, the desire for treatment and compliance of the child also affect the decision.

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“Fluorine application is a method that makes teeth more resistant to decay formation and reduces caries-causing microorganisms in the mouth”

Fluoridation is based on the principle that the high concentration of fluorine strengthens the structure of the enamel by locally applying the gel-like fluorine to the teeth with specially produced disposable spoons.It is applied to the teeth in approximately 30 to 60 seconds. It has been scientifically proven that applying fluoride during 6-month periodic controls provides significant protection against caries.

As a preservative in mouth without decay, regardless of adult or child
By helping to eliminate sensitivity in patients with sensitivity problems in their teeth,
People with erosion in their teeth,
As a preservative in mouth prone to decay,
Individuals who have difficulties in maintaining oral hygiene or who need special care

On average, it is possible to prevent caries formation by applying fluoride in routine controls for 6 months and other protective methods. However, depending on age and the risk of caries formation, fluoride application at different frequencies may be required.